Recovery of brodifacoum in vomitus following induction of emesis in dogs that had ingested rodenticide bait

Recovery of brodifacoum in vomitus following induction of emesis in dogs that had ingested rodenticide bait
Peer reviewed


AIM: To assess the benefit of inducing emesis in dogs that have ingested rodenticide bait containing brodifacoum (BDF), by determining the amount of BDF in bait recovered from the vomitus relative to the estimated amount consumed.

METHODS: Between 2014 and 2015 samples of vomitus from seven dogs that ingested rodenticide baits containing BDF were submitted by veterinarians in New Zealand. All seven dogs had been given apomorphine by the veterinarian and vomited within 1 hour of ingesting the bait. Some or all of the bait particles were retrieved from each sample and were analysed for concentrations of BDF using HPLC. Based on estimations of the mass of bait consumed, the concentration of BDF stated on the product label, and the estimated mass of bait in the vomitus of each dog, the amount of BDF in the vomited bait was calculated as a percentage of the amount ingested.

RESULTS: For five dogs an estimation of the mass of bait ingested was provided by the submitting veterinarian. For these dogs the estimated percentage of BDF in the bait retrieved from the vomitus was between 10–77%. All dogs were well after discharge but only one dog returned for further testing. This dog had a normal prothrombin time 3 days after ingestion.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The induction of emesis within 1 hour of ingestion can be a useful tool in reducing the exposure of dogs to a toxic dose of BDF. The BDF was not fully absorbed within 1 hour of ingestion suggesting that the early induction of emesis can remove bait containing BDF before it can be fully absorbed.

KEY WORDS: Emesis, brodifacoum, absorption, dog, anticoagulant, decontamination, rodenticide

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