Competitive exclusion of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 4, serotype O:3 by Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A, serotype O:6,30 in tissue culture and in pigs

Competitive exclusion of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 4, serotype O:3 by Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A, serotype O:6,30 in tissue culture and in pigs
Peer reviewed

Abstract

AIMS: To study the adhesion properties of a biotype 4, serotype O:3 (human pathogenic) strain of Yersinia enterocolitica and to determine if adhesion in vitro and colonisation in vivo can be prevented by competition with a biotype 1A, serotype O:6,30 (non-pathogenic) strain. To study interaction between Y. enterocolitica biotype 4, serotype O:3 and cultured epithelial cells using the synthetic tripeptide arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD).
METHODS: The human intestinal epithelial (HEp-2) cell line was used for in vitro studies. Inocula of Y. enterocolitica biotype 4, serotype O:3 radiolabelled using tritium were incubated with HEp-2 cells and RGD tripeptide, or with Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A, serotype O:6,30 sequentially or concurrently, then washed and lysed, and radioactivity measured to determine the effect of RGD on adhesion, and competitive exclusion of pathogenic by non-pathogenic bacteria. For in vivo studies, two groups of 5-week-old piglets (n=5/group) were sequentially inoculated orally with 5x109 colony forming units (cfu) of either a non-pathogenic biotype 1A, serotype O:6,30 strain of Y. enterocolitica followed by a pathogenic biotype 4, serotype O:3 strain, or vice versa. Pigs were monitored for carriage of strains using bacterial culture and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
RESULTS: The RGD tripeptide significantly inhibited adherence of the pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strain to cultured epithelial cells, suggesting that adhesion involved the RGD tripeptide sequence. The non-pathogenic biotype 1A, serotype O:6,30 strain of Y. enterocolitica prevented adhesion of the pathogenic strain to cells in vitro when allowed to adhere first. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was consistently isolated from rectal swabs from 80–100% of pigs on all sampling occasions but not from oral swabs after 14 days in pigs first inoculated with the non-pathogenic strain or at 26 days in pigs first inoculated with the pathogenic strain.
CONCLUSIONS: A non-pathogenic strain of Y. enterocolitica reduced adhesion of a human pathogenic strain in vitro but not in vivo.
KEY WORDS: Pig, Yersinia enterocolitica, competitive exclusion, RGD, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid, HEp-2, human intestinal epithelial cell line, Luria-Bertani

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