Evidence that moxidectin is a greater risk factor than ivermectin in the development of resistance to macrocyclic lactones by Ostertagia spp in sheep in south eastern Australia

Evidence that moxidectin is a greater risk factor than ivermectin in the development of resistance to macrocyclic lactones by Ostertagia spp in sheep in south eastern Australia
Peer reviewed

Abstract

AIM: To determine associations between resistance of Ostertagia (=Teladorsagia) spp to macrocyclic lactone (ML) anthelmintics and history of use of anthelmintics, by type, on commercial sheep farms in temperate regions of southern South Australia and Victoria, Australia.
METHODS: Faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRTs) were conducted during a 2.5-year period (from August 2001 to January 2004) and records of the type of anthelmintic used in the 5 years preceding the FECRTs were collected from commercial sheep farms (n=103) in southern South Australia and Victoria, and data analysed retrospectively. ML resistance was defined as <95% reduction of Ostertagia spp 10–14 days after treatment with ivermectin (IVM), orally, at half the manufacturer’s recommended dose rate. Use of anthelmintics in the preceding 5 and 10 years on each property was classified according to the nett number of years each of the following classes of drug had been used: IVM oral liquid (IVO), IVM controlled-release capsules (CRCs), abamectin (ABA), moxidectin (MOX) or a non-ML anthelmintic. The prevalence of ML resistance, by property, was analysed for associations with prior use of anthelmintics.
RESULTS: Resistance by Ostertagia spp to ML anthelmintics was evident on 51/103 (49.5%) properties. The prevalence of resistance was lowest (23%) on properties on which MOX had not been used, and was significantly higher (64–77%) on properties on which MOX had been used for ≥2 of the preceding 5 years (p<0.001). In contrast, the prevalence of resistance was highest (70–74%) on the properties on which IVM, or IVM and/ or ABA, had not been used in the previous 5 years (on which the use of MOX was predominant), and was markedly lower (20– 42%) on properties that had used IVM or IVM and/or ABA for at least one of the preceding 5 years. Prevalence of resistance was higher for properties on which the only ML anthelmintic used was MOX (19/29=66%) than for those on which the only ML used was IVO (2/19=11%; p<0.001). Properties on which the only ML used was MOX were 2.72 times more likely to have resistance than properties on which the only ML used was IVO (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01–5.08).
CONCLUSION: Use of MOX for ≥2 of the preceding 5 years was associated with a higher prevalence of resistance to ML by Ostertagia spp on sheep farms in south eastern Australia than the use of IVO.
KEY WORDS: Ivermectin, moxidectin, macrocyclic lactone, Ostertagia, anthelmintic resistance, sheep, southeast Australia

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